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Maria Augustyn - BLOG
Improve your memory effortlessly
|Posted on May 29, 2011 at 10:24 PM||comments (0)|
Blueberries May Reverse
Age-Related Mental Decline
A new study with lab rats suggests that supplementing with blueberries for one month may slow and even reverse the decline in mental function associated with age.
Cognitive performance declines naturally with age, but new results published in Nutrition indicate that for elderly rats, one month's supplementation with blueberries was associated with an improvement in the memory scores, as measured in a maze.
In addition, data showed that two months of consuming the blueberry-enriched diet was associated with a prolongation of the benefits after the diet was stopped, and the performance of the aging rats was similar to that of younger rats.
"Therefore, one-, two- and four-month diets substantially reversed the age-related object memory impairment found in 19-month-old rats," wrote researchers from the University of Houston and Tufts University U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging. "This illustrates a surprisingly prompt and powerful effect of an antioxidant dietary intervention," they added.
Blueberry consumption has previously been linked to reduced risk of Alzheimer's, and the beneficial effects of the blueberries are thought to be associated with their flavonoid content––in particular anthocyanins and flavanols. The exact way in which flavonoids affect the brain is unknown, but they have previously been shown to cross the blood brain barrier after dietary intake. It is believed that they may exert their effects on learning and memory by enhancing existing neuronal connections, improving cellular communications and stimulating neuronal regeneration.
Earlier this year, researchers from the University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center reported that 12 weeks of consuming a daily drink of about 500 ml of blueberry juice was associated with improved learning and word list recall (Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58:3996-4000, 2010). The study was said to be the first human trial to assess the potential benefits of blueberries on brain function in older adults with increased risk for dementia and Alzheimer's.
The new study, led by Houston's David Malin, PhD, examined the effects of one or two months of consuming a blueberry-enriched diet in aging Fischer-344 rats.
Results showed that animals receiving the blueberry diet performed better than animals not receiving a berry-enriched diet and that two months of supplementation resulted in a maintenance of the improved performance after the supplementation period ended. No such effects were observed in the one-month group, said the researchers.
The researchers noted, "One possible explanation [for this observation] is a 'threshold hypothesis.' This hypothesis assumes there is a threshold concentration of antioxidants, particularly longer-lasting fat-soluble antioxidants, needed to maintain alleviation of memory impairment.
"The two-month diet might have produced a larger surplus of antioxidant nutrients over the threshold, whereas the one-month diet might have produced only a scant surplus above the threshold. Then, as the antioxidant nutrients are metabolized, the one-month diet might soon lose its ability to prevent memory impairment, whereas this loss of effectiveness might hypothetically take much longer after the two-month diet," they added.
Furthermore, rats on the blueberry diet increased their memory scores, while the control animals displayed a decline in memory scores.
"The present study is encouraging in terms of potential human application," wrote Dr. Malin and his co-workers. "First, the present results suggest that even a relatively brief blueberry diet might produce measurable benefits. Second, the benefits of several months of diet might be maintained for a considerable period after the diet is interrupted. Third, blueberry supplementation might possibly reverse some degree of memory impairment that has already developed.
"This raises the possibility that this sort of nutritional intervention might still be beneficial even after certain memory deficiencies have become evident," they added.
Nutrition; Published online ahead of print. May 2011
ADHD - Alternative to harmful drugs.
|Posted on May 16, 2011 at 9:25 PM||comments (221)|
Elimination diet for ADHD
The study by Lidy Pelsser and colleagues (Feb 5, p 494) attempted to determine whether a restricted elimination diet is an effective treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the design had some methodological strengths, a chain is only as strong as its weakest link.
Unfortunately, the study's design was severely flawed since none of the outcome assessments was blind to treatment status. The investigators should have included at least one objective, independent assessment of attention, impulsivity, or activity level.
Although it is reasonable for families of young hyperactive children to consider elimination diets, this study raises as many questions as it answers with respect to this treatment approach.
The Naturopathic Approach
Give your baby a chance to grow to become the best that s/he can be. Natural medicines can assist to balance and harmonise the body/mind without the nasty side effects and dependency of conventional medical drugs that may lead to long term depression.
If you and your Dr decide that you need to put your child on medical drugs, ensure you are encouraging the normal healthy development of body and brain with proper nutrition and a supportive lifestyle, in time you might need less of the drug or totally eliminate it.
Please read below more information on Naturopathy and ADHD.
Make an appointment today ([email protected]) and start to build better health for your most precious little people.
The term “attention deficit” is misleading. In general, the current predominating theories suggest that persons with ADHD actually have difficulty regulating their attention; inhibiting their attention to non-relevant stimuli, and/or focussing too intensely on specific stimuli to the exclusion of what is relevant. In one sense, rather than too little attention, many persons with ADHD pay too much attention to too many things, leading them to have little focus.
The major neurologic functions disturbed by the neurotransmitter imbalance of ADHD fall into the category of executive function. The 6 major tasks of executive function that are most commonly distorted with ADHD are (1) shifting from one mindset or strategy to another (i.e., flexibility), (2) organization (e.g., anticipating both needs and problems), (3) planning (e.g., goal setting), (4) working memory (i.e., receiving, storing, then retrieving information within short-term memory), (5) separating affect from cognition (i.e., detaching one's emotions from one's reason), and (6) inhibiting and regulating verbal and motoric action (e.g., jumping to conclusions too quickly, difficulty waiting in line in an appropriate fashion).
Causes and Risk Factors
Like most complex neurobehavioral syndromes, the cause of ADHD is unknown (Daruna et al. 2000). Genetic factors as well as other factors affecting brain development during prenatal and postnatal life are most likely involved (Daruna et al. 2000). The use of functional neuro-imaging has led to identification of a number of consistent features in the brains of ADHD children. These features include decreased arousal and glucose metabolism and increased theta (4 to 8 Hz) activity in both the frontal and subcortical regions (Thompson and Thompson 1998). Results of animal studies and the therapeutic success of psycho-stimulant medication suggest that the aetio-pathology (cause of disease) of ADHD may involve hypofunctional (poor function) dopamine pathways and other neurotransmitter imbalances (Kidd 2000).
Heredity: children with ADHD usually have at least one first-degree relative who also has ADHD and one-third of all fathers who had ADHD in their youth have children with ADHD (National Institute of Mental Health 2001).
Gender: ADHD is more prevalent in boys; the male-to-female ratio is 4:1 in epidemiologic surveys and 9:1 in clinic samples (Daruna et al. 2000).
Prenatal and early postnatal health: maternal drug, alcohol, and cigarette use (National Institute of Mental Health 2001); in-utero exposure to toxins, including lead, dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); nutrient deficiencies and imbalances.
Abnormal thyroid responsiveness (possibly caused by exposure to pollutants during perinatal period) (Kidd 2000).
Learning disabilities, communication disorders (Kidd 2000), and tic disorders such as Tourette's syndrome (American Psychiatric Association 1994).
Nutritional factors: allergies or intolerances to food, food colouring, or additives (Kidd 2000).
Environmental exposures: chronic exposure to lead and other toxic metals have been linked to a variety of neurobehavioral sequelae in children (Kidd 2000).
Extreme or pervasive psychosocial stressors (such as marital discord or parental psychopathology); in isolation probably not a major cause of ADHD, but may contribute in combination with other risks (Wolraich and Baumgaertel 1997).
Symptoms & Signs – Inattentive
Symptoms & Signs - Hyperactive
Hair metal analysis
Useful for screening for metal toxicity, which may be a triggering factor
Check for dysbiosis/gut toxicity(http://www.mariaaugustyn.com/HEALTH-CHECK---Tests.html)
Diet and Lifestyle
Behavioural modification programs are recommended, to assist sufferers and parents establish suitable routines and systems for managing undesirable behaviour.
Patients do best in school and work environments which offer a highly structured approach.
Ensure that punishment is not overly harsh, and that praise is given for acceptable behaviours.
Ensure adequate sleep and physical exercise.
Patients should avoid coffee, cola and other caffeinated drinks (if taking stimulants).
Diet should be low in sugar and carbohydrates, as hypoglycaemia may trigger symptoms.
Each meal should have protein to provide adequate amino acids for healthy neurotransmitter production.
Enhances concentration, mental alertness and cognitive function, Improves short and long term memory.
The ideal combination of herbal therapy, nutrition and lifestyle/behavioural changes can make the difference between dependency on drugs, weakness of body and character and a strong healthy person.
Stress...Are you coping well...What can you do?
|Posted on May 15, 2011 at 10:54 PM||comments (0)|
failing to get treatment
Doctors are under so much pressure to keep-up the image of a “super-person” that those struggling with a mental-illness are failing to access healthcare, a new study suggests.
A survey of doctors including GPs reveals that “unrealistic expectations” are preventing those with a mental illness from seeking help.
“Several described self-treating with medication, exercise, relaxation, etc until a point of crisis or desperation was reached.”
The survey also found that most doctors who saw a psychiatrist were self-referred due to concerns about their work performance and fear of being reported to the Medical Council.
The authors suggest more support needs to be given to doctors to help them "acknowledge vulnerability". They also say more informal doctor to-doctor conversations could be beneficial.
Gemma Collins 6minutes
The Naturopathic Treatment of Stress
What is stress?
The stress response is well characterised as the “flight or fight” response, and is highly variable between individuals. Therefore there is no one-size-fits-all approach to stress management strategies, and why we need to develop individual treatment strategies based on the patients presentation, their lifestyle and their own health goals.
Manageable stress is beneficial to mental and physical health; it challenges us, encourages change, creates adaptation and makes us stronger, both emotionally and biochemically.
However, when faced with extraordinary stress or under constant stress, without adequate recovery, the stress response can become over-stretched and predispose to physiological and neurological changes, leading to the major chronic diseases of modern life, including neurological imbalances, insulin resistance, hormonal disturbances and immune suppression.
Causes and Risk Factors
Factors that increase stress include the following:
Major life stressors:
(top 20 life stressors from Holmes and Rahe Stress Score)
1. Death of a spouse
3. Marital separation
5. Death of a close family member
6. Personal injury or illness
8. Dismissal from work
9. Marital reconciliation
10. Change in health of family member
12. Sexual difficulties
13. Gain a new family member
14. Business readjustment
15. Change in financial state
16. Death of a close friend
17. Change to different line of work
18. Change in frequency of arguments
19. Major mortgage
20. Foreclosure on mortgage or loan
Chronic stress & anxiety risk factors:
• In-utero stress (Maternal stress experienced during gestation – foetal programming)
• Traumatic early life experiences
• Stress, depression, other psychiatric conditions
• Life situations (social or financial problems)
• Lack of exercise – sedentary lifestyle
• Excessive caffeine and / or alcohol consumption
• Excessive consumption of high fat and simple sugars
• Overweight and obesity
• Food intolerances and allergies.
• Tobacco smoking increasing the stress response.
• Toxin exposure
• Nutritional deficiencies, especially B vitamins, zinc and magnesium
Symptoms & Signs of excessive stress or our inability to cope
• Neurological dysfunction: Anxiety, poor concentration, excessive worry, insomnia, depression &/or extreme fatigue.
• Cardiovascular symptoms: Palpitations, clammy palms.
• Digestive dysfunction: Digestive cramping, irritable bowel syndrome, food intolerances, hypochlorhydria.
• Immunological dysfunction: Inflammation, increased risk of infection, predisposition to allergies.
• Metabolic dysfunctions: insulin resistance, obesity.
• Musculoskeletal disorders: Muscular tension (eg: shoulders), tension headaches.
• Other common presenting signs and symptoms: declining vision and/or hearing,
fatigue, loss of skin elasticity.
Diet and Lifestyle
Lifestyle guidelines may assist in the management of stress:
• Take regular exercise
• Practice relaxation, guided visualisation and/or breathing techniques.
• Set boundaries in relationships, families and work.
• Get support from friends, family, colleagues.
• Assign “time-to-fret” then get on with day to day activities with enthusiasm.
• Take regular work breaks throughout the day.
• Take weekend or holidays away from obligations and worries to gain a fresh perspective.
• Express your creativity. Write, garden, paint, sing – or take up a new hobby or classes.
• Stop smoking
Dietary guidelines may assist in the management of stress:
• Reduce pro-inflammatory foods in the diet including saturated fats (meats, especially poultry, and dairy), refined foods, and sugar. Patients sensitive to antibiotics should eat only organic meats to avoid antibiotic residues.
• Emphasise foods high in essential fatty acids such as oily fish and nuts/seeds. (www.food2live.org)
• Eat a minimally processed diet rich in antioxidants, phytonutrients (www.food2live.org) and bioflavonoids.
• Protein is essential for connective tissue support, and should be consumed regularly.
• Nutrients to support digestive health including fibre and yoghurt should be consumed.
• Minimise intake of caffeine, alcohol and salt.
Programs that may assist the stressed patient
Dysbiosis (poor intestinal health) and toxic accumulation are two of the main triggers for the inflammation that drives many chronic degenerative diseases.
The integrated program also addresses digestive competence and aspects of dietary tolerance.
Professional Weight Management Program
A carbohydrate-controlled, ketogenic fat loss program is an essential approach for those with severe insulin resistance, who will usually also be overweight or obese. Reducing dietary glycaemic load will reduce insulin release and help patients lose fat, particularly visceral (waist) adipose tissue, thus helping to minimise the risk of many chronic illnesses.
Wellness Lifestyle Program
This program is for those of relatively normal weight (i.e. fat percentage) and activity. This approach is designed to maintain a healthy body composition and insulin sensitivity by utilising an anti-inflammatory diet, stress management and regular exercise, all associated with optimum health and longevity.
Elimination diet and /or alkalising dietary strategies may be incorporated with Wellness for maximum benefit.
Supportive Herbal Treatments
Depending on the patient’s needs the treatment may include the use of herbs such as
Make an appointment today: [email protected]
Alzheimer's...a form of brain diabetes.
|Posted on April 28, 2011 at 9:47 PM||comments (24)|
Insulin: Predictor for Alzheimer’s?
Could Alzheimer’s be a form of diabetes? Brain levels of insulin and its related cellular receptors fall during the early stages of Alzheimer’s, and as insulin levels continue to drop, the disease becomes more severe. Now, doctors are looking at memory problems like Alzheimer’s disease as a form of brain starvation, and one doctor says glucose metabolism can be the key to helping prevent this deadly disease.
Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia. Most often, it is diagnosed in people over 65, although the less-prevalent, early-onset Alzheimer's can occur much earlier. In 2006, there were over 26 million sufferers worldwide. Alzheimer's is predicted to affect 1 in 85 people globally by 2050. A recent study showed the inability of the brain to properly use glucose might be a key factor in the development of the disease.
"Type 1 and 2 diabetes are diabetes of the body, which means the body can’t handle sugar properly. Type 3 diabetes means the brain can’t handle sugar properly, "Larry McCleary, M.D., a neurosurgeon and author of "Feed your Brain, Lose Your Belly", says diabetics have four-times the risk of developing Alzheimer’s, and those with prediabetes have triple the risk. Insulin and its related protein, insulin-related growth factor-I, lose the ability to bind to cell receptors. This creates a resistance to the insulin growth factors, causing the cells to malfunction and die.
"If you can’t handle your primary fuel source, then you can’t generate energy, and you lose function, and that’s pretty much what happens in Alzheimer’s disease," Dr. McCleary explained. "Changes in brain glucose metabolism can occur in people who have no symptoms. Their brains are functioning normally in their 20’s and 30’s, but yet if you do scan, you can see subtle changes in glucose metabolism in the brain and not just anywhere in the brain. They are actually in the regions where Alzheimer’s disease develops when you’re 65 or 75 years old."
He says to prevent diabetes of the brain and the body, it’s important to make lifestyle changes that feed the brain while maintaining stable blood sugar and insulin levels.
"If your brain is functioning normally, but it’s starting not to work normally, that’s the time to start thinking about doing something about it," Dr. McCleary said. "If you lose weight, you can get the glucose metabolism back to normal. If you can do that before you injure brain cells permanently, I predict that you should be able to reverse the changes in your brain."
He says people with a family history of Alzheimer’s disease, or those who have had a head injury that leads to memory loss should get tested by doing a simple glucose tolerance test once in a while. "If your insulin glucose improves, then probably your brain health will improve as well, but it’s better to do it early on even if everything is still functioning than waiting until the nerve cells are starting to die because once they do, they don’t get replaced," Dr. McCleary said.
Dr. McCleary says if insulin resistance could be minimized by making proper food choices, he estimates that 40 percent of Alzheimer’s disease cases could be prevented.
SOURCE: Interview with Dr. Larry McCleary, 19th Annual World Congress on Anti-Aging and Aesthetic Medicine, held in Orlando, FL, April 7-9, 2011 - Panaxea
The Clinic Program "Getting Slimmer and HEALTHIER" is based on a diet that has the property of manipulating insulin levels in our blood stream. When less insulin is needed, muscle mass is preserved and fatty tissue is lost. Furthermore, the style of eating suggested has the ability of being anti-inflammatory.
As a consequence, you can become HEALTHIER, not just slimmer.
In my practice I use for my older patients and in people with a family history of mental decline related to ageing, Colostrinin, just one capsule per day.
This wonderful nutrient is extracted from colostrum, and manipulated in such a way to make it easily available for our bodies.
It helps with the age related loss of brain power like memory, concentration, etc. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of Colostrinin conducted on 105 patients with ARCD (age related cognitive decline) found this polypeptide has a stabilising effect on cognitive function. Colostrinin has proven efficacy in managing mild and moderate cases of ARCD with greater efficacy in earlier-stage patients than more advanced.
May reduce beta amyloid: One of the ways Colostrinin may manage progression of ARCD is through reduction of beta-amyloid levels in the brain.
Beta-amyloid has fascinated scientists for years. Long considered a key player in the development and progression of AD, it held its secrets closely. In the past several years, however, it has gradually begun to give up many of these secrets. Scientists have learned an enormous amount about how beta-amyloid plaques are formed and the toxic effects that these structures as well as the earlier forms of beta-amyloid have on neurons and synapses. These findings have opened up new avenues of investigation and new possibilities for therapeutic targets.
In in-vitro studies, the addition of Colostrinin to neural cells inhibited the formation of beta-amyloid fibres. Further, upon long-term incubation, amyloid fibres were largely dissolved by Colostrinin.
Prevents oxidative damage: Another key mechanism of action for Colostrinin is that this polypeptide protects the sensitive central nervous system against oxidative damage,
Our brain health is our most precious asset. Are you doing all you can to preserve your brain function for a long time?
Ring today for an appointment: Let’s improve your brain health.
WARNING: The 'side effects' are that you will gain health for your entire body, not just your brain, and you will feel more energetic and alive!
Brain Health Breakthrough
|Posted on March 27, 2011 at 8:59 PM||comments (1)|
Brain Health Breakthrough
The three-pound human brain is comprised of 100 billion neurons with branches that connect to more than 100 trillion connections in the brain. This mind-boggling “neuron forest” is the very foundation of connectivity to our inside and outside world. When things begin to go wrong with this network, the system starts to run slower, access to memory files become sluggish and eventually begin to fail. Just like with the office or home computer, routine maintenance prevents fragmentation of one’s hard drive, decreased CPU speed and protection against corruption of vital files.
The term dementia as we know describes memory loss and other intellectual abilities serious enough to interfere with daily life. The predominant subset of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease that accounts for 50 to 80 percent of dementia cases. Smaller dementia subsets include vascular dementia, mixed dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies and frontotemporal dementia.
A staggering 5.3 million Americans are living with Alzheimer’s disease. This epidemic is now ranked as the 6th leading cause of death in the US, together with diabetes as a leading killer. Alzheimer’s disease progressively destroys brain cells, causing memory loss and problems with thinking eroding away the very foundation of one’s social, work and personal life pursuits.
The Web of Plaques and Tangles
The two primary physical changes in structure that are involved are known as plaques and tangles. Plaques build up between nerve cells and are comprised of protein fragments called beta-amyloid plaques. In turn the tangles are twisted fibers called “tau” proteins that arise from dying neurons. Tangles (neurofibrillary tangles) are aggregates of the microtubule-associated protein tau, which has become hyperphosphorylated and accumulates inside the cells themselves. These substances are believed to alter electrical conductivity and communication between neurons. Put simply, the brain is “short-circuited” slowing or at times completely stopped, which prevents the rapid and efficient nerve transmission that allows for “our brain’s connectivity” through the forest of neurons that forms the very genesis of all brain functions and is the repository of memories, thoughts and feelings.
The current state of scientific understanding of the pathogenesis and progression of most brain abnormalities points to the need to control inflammation, decrease oxidative damage, minimize the production of amyloid plaques and tau protein tangles, plus decrease exposures to environmental toxins and to accommodate unique genetic susceptibilities.
Research has shown that a newly available, bioavailable form of curcumin combined with EGCG from green tea, and an anti-inflammatory diet are strong considerations for brain wellness. Furthermore, Vitamin D and curcumin have documented synergy when it comes to sustaining a healthy brain.
Curcumin extract from Turmeric (Curcuma longa) has been used for centuries in India and Southeast Asia, where by chance the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease is a small fraction of what is found in the westernized world. To assert that this is the only contributing factor would overstate the case; however, without question, the scientific literature has documented clearly that this widely used spice possesses potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Yet, the same published literature has pointed out that this amazing botanical holds great promise to preserve or enhance the health of the brain; In a study conducted on mice it was discovered that curcumin’s natural anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties may reduce both oxidative damage and pathological changes in the brain that frequently leads to brain abnormalities. More specifically, curcumin has been shown to reduce the incidence of harmful amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) plaques by slowing deposition of beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) within the brain, which is hypothesized to play a pivotal role in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. As the researchers reported in their scientific abstract: “We show for the first time that curcumin potently lowers Abeta levels by attenuating the maturation of APP in the secretory pathway.”
The mechanisms described above along with the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Curcumin extract hold great promise.
The extract of green tea, EGCG, has been shown to possess neuroprotective properties, according to research on mice bred to have AD-like disease. This protection reaches far beyond antioxidant properties and has been hypothesized to arise also from the modulation of the pathological process of creating beta-amyloid plaques that is enzyme dependent. The creation of Abeta plaques arises from the varying levels of activity of the enzymes alpha-, beta and gamma-secretase. Compounds that enhance alpha- while down regulating beta- and gamma- were shown to have positive effects in the study. The researchers’ findings are promising as their quote reflects: “Compared with untreated mutant PS2 AD mice, treatment with EGCG enhanced memory function and brain alpha-secretase activity but reduced brain beta- and gamma-secretase activities as well as Abeta levels. Moreover, EGCG inhibited the fibrillization of Abeta in vitro with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 7.5 mg/L. These studies suggest that EGCG may be a beneficial agent in the prevention of development or progression of AD.”
It also appears that “EGCG treatment fortified the cellular GSH (reduced glutathione) pool through elevated mRNA expression of gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase (GCL), the rate limiting enzyme in glutathione biosynthesis. It was hypothesized that EGCG may have another potential role in AD patients by augmenting cellular antioxidant defense capacity and attenuating Abeta-mediated oxidative and/or nitrosative cell death.”
There remains a need for much more research when it comes to dementia and vitamin D, yet a 2010 review of the literature reported: “Vitamin D deficiency has recently been linked to dementia, particularly AD, through several mechanisms. Current clinical trials are investigating a possible link between low vitamin D levels and low cognitive test scores in AD patients.” It is not surprising to those of us who follow the emerging research on vitamin D that the “sunshine” vitamin may impact AD genetic factors. In another 2010 research report, great detail was offered as to the role of vitamin D and immune modulation as it relates to AD.
There are definitive nutritional, diet and lifestyle requirements for helping maintain optimal brain performance. We know that among the risk factors, oxidative damage ranks high, which is self-evident since with each heartbeat some of the 60,000 miles of arteries within the body carry about 20 to 25 percent of your blood to your brain. Inflammation is another very real factor that must be controlled as well as the creation of amyloid plaques.
Please consider a Health Building Plan tailored made for you, to achieve the maximum protection and extend the health of your brain for many years.
Take action today!
Diabetes linked with increased Parkinson's risk
|Posted on March 21, 2011 at 1:58 AM||comments (91)|
Diabetes linked with
increased Parkinson’s risk
Evidence is mounting for a link between diabetes and Parkinson’s disease, although the jury is still out on whether the association is causal.
Patients with a diagnosis of diabetes were at 36% increased risk of Parkinson’s disease compared with those without diabetes, according to a case-control study involving almost 2000 Danish patients with Parkinson’s disease.
The effect was found to be stronger in women, and with respect to early-onset Parkinson’s disease.
Writing in Diabetes Care, the authors said evidence was “accruing” for an association between diabetes and Parkinson’s disease.
They said their results were “strikingly similar” to another large trial using data from the Physician’s Health Study, which found a 34% increased risk of Parkinson’s disease associated with diabetes.
However whereas that study reported that most excess diabetes risk occurred around the time of Parkinson’s disease diagnosis (suggesting possible surveillance bias),the present study excluded first diabetes diagnoses and drug use up to five years prior to the index date.
Other prospective trials had also shown a link between diabetes and Parkinson’s, the authors noted, including one study of 51,000 Finnish adults, which linked diabetes diagnosis with an 85% increased risk of Parkinson’s disease.
However some case-control studies had found no link between the two diseases, and one actually found an inverse association, the authors noted.
Commenting on their own findings they said it was still unclear whether the association was causal. “A common biologic pathway appears to be the most plausible explanation at this point,” they said.
One pathway might be related to vitamin D levels, they said, noting these had been implicated in both diseases.
Alternatively, the effect could relate to insulin resistance, which had previously been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease risk, they said.
Diabetes Care 2011;
Nervous Tissue Support
Did you know...?
Phosphatidylserine (PS) is one of the key building blocks of cellular membranes, particularly in the nervous system, and occurs naturally in the brain, where it demonstrates an amazingly broad spectrum of beneficial functions. PS has a powerful effect in the improvement of memory, mood, attention span, and even reflexes. It is a safe, effective treatment for a wide variety of neurotransmitter imbalances and should be considered whenever a neurological condition is suspected.
PS is a phosphoglyceride phospholipid derived (for supplementation purposes) from non-genetically modified soy lecithin.
Any condition requiring neurological support
FUNCTIONS THAT MAY BE FACILITATED:
facilitates the production and release of acetylcholine within the cerebral cortex
stimulates the release of dopamine reduces the excessive release of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol stimulates the production of protein-kinase-C enhances the function of nerve growth factor normalises the daily secretion of thyrotrophin enhances the efficiency of glucose metabolism within the brain increases the number of receptor sites for neurotransmitters within the brain can activate cells of the immune system.
PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE : NUTRITION FOR THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Phosphatidylserine concentrates in all cell membranes, especially in the myelin sheaths of neurons.
Throughout the body generally, it is involved in the repair, strength, permeability, elasticity and maintenance of structural integrity of all cell membranes.
In neurons, it is the dominant phospholipid in the myelin sheaths, and appears to be important for anchoring proteins of both structural and functional importance.
Phosphatidylserine has been found effective in treating the symptoms associated with early Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.
For example, 300 mg per day for 8 weeks normalised the EEG patterns of Alzheimer’s Disease patients, whilst 400 mg of PS per day improved brain glucose metabolism, normalised EEG patterns and improved cognition1.
Another study showed that in aged patients with memory loss given 300 mg daily for 12 weeks, the best results (a 15% increase in memory) were observed in those with the worst impairment - and the improvement in memory lasted for up to 1 month after cessation of treatment.
Patients with early stages of dementia can also benefit from PS supplementation. Patients aged 55-80 years with mild cognitive impairment took 300 mg per day for 12 weeks. Benefits noted were: improved ability to learn and recall names of familiar persons; recall the location of misplaced objects; recall details from the prior week; recall telephone numbers; paragraph recall; ability to concentrate while reading; and in conversing and performing tasks.
Age-related decline in dendrites.
PS prevents the age-associated decline in the number of dendrites within the brain. Rats supplemented with PS from the age of 3 to 27 months exhibited no reduction in their number of dendrites for a further 24 months.
PS has been found very effective in the treatment of depression, especially in the elderly.
PS helps to prevent atherosclerosis by mediating the phagocytotic removal of dead cells in vascular smooth muscle.
People with hypertension exhibit lowered PS levels, and supplementation has proved helpful.
Stress and exercise
PS counteracts the exaggerated release of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol that occurs as a result of the excessive stress, or from strenuous exercise.
Also, all cells of our body may benefit from less toxicity in our body, particularly nervous system cells are very sensitive to toxins.
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